18th March 2015: 'Chris Smith, the frackers and the 'astroturf' consultancy' » 2015 » Mobbsey's Musings » Paul Mobbs/MEI » FRAW

Chris Smith/Nosferatu
The horror!, the horror!!

Chris Smith, the frackers and the 'astroturf' consultancy – 'engineering consent' for unconventional gas in Britain

Paul Mobbs, "Mobbsey's Musings", Wednesday 18th March 2015

Written for The Ecologist, published 18th March under the title Engineering consent for fracking: Chris Smith and the 'astroturf' consultancy

What we're talking about here is the spectacle of a 'shadow play'[1]; an illusion of form operated invisibly by people behind the scenes. What creates those elusive images is the craft of public relations; in particular the use, since its formalisation in the mid-Twentieth Century by Edward Bernays[2], of public relations techniques to convince the public of supposed certainties which are objectively misleading.

Unless George Osborne gets new orders[3] about his budget this week, it looks like, despite the bluster of the last year[4], the Government will not be announcing[5] the results of the 14th On-shore Oil and Gas Licensing Round this side of the election (perhaps they're worried about legal action[6]).

Despite this the Conservative's token 'green', Tim Yeo MP, has been trumpeting the benefits of shale gas[7], based upon some spurious results[8] produced by DECC, which – as I outline in a new report for Talk Fracking[9] this week – is based upon questionable data. Arguably Tim Yeo's trust in that data[10], expressed during the Parliamentary debate on the moratorium proposed by the Commons Environmental Audit Committee[11], has been very much abused by DECC and unconventional gas's supporters in government[12].

In fact, with less than two months to go before the election, and despite 'fracking' having been the major grassroots environmental issue of the last Parliament, all is quiet on the shale gas front.

In reality though this is just the calm before the post-election PR storm.

Irrespective of who wins (or perhaps in the circumstances, who loses the least), after the election the UK public will face an onslaught of PR-orchestrated 'spin' to promote shale gas, coalbed methane and underground coal gasification (UCG) as the best thing since… well, anything!

In Scotland, a moratorium on 'fracking' was imposed days after the failure of the moratorium in Parliament (although, as I highlighted in my last Ecologist article[13], the wording of the moratorium doesn't cover UCG). As a result the pro-fracking company INEOS, recently heavily invested[14] into unconventional gas, is planning to "love bomb" the Scottish public[15] back into supporting fracking. And though in Scotland that campaign is just getting under-way, in England it's already begun…

What?, hadn't you noticed? – that's because you were not meant to.

In the final case study[16] of my recent report for Talk Fracking I examine the use of academics within the Task Force on Shale Gas[17] – a body set up last September[18] under the auspices of former New Labour minister, and more recently former head of the Environment Agency, Lord Chris Smith.

The Task Force claims to[19]

…provide a transparent, trusted, independent and impartial platform for public scrutiny, discussion and information about shale gas exploration and production in the UK.

This is where the public relations 'shadow play' comes into its own. Not in the guise of Lord Chris Smith – who while head of the Environment Agency had behind the scenes meetings[20] to thrash out how environmental regulations would be watered-down. Not the Task Force's 'expert panel' members[21] – many of whom have previously expressed support for shale gas and even outright hostility[22] to the anti-fracking movement. And not even the oil and gas industry companies – who are funding the work[23] of the Task Force.

The real players here – the people behind the scenes pulling the strings of the shadow play puppets – are Edelman[24], the Task Force's secretariat.

Who are Edelman? That's the really important question here – and the most prescient question to ask in relation to the Task Force's future work on behalf of the public.

All modern businesses tend to specialise in certain fields. Edelman's specialism is 'grassroots engagement'[25] – creating industry-friendly front- or 'astroturf'-groups[26] to represent the benefits of controversial developments. Edelman has developed this technique in the US for its large American extractive and industrial clients over the last decade or so[27].

Their purpose is not to convince the public. They are there – as outlined in the recent US study Merchants of Doubt[28] – to confuse the public so that they don't know who to believe. To create, as the original strategies[29] developed by the tobacco industry in the 1960s outlined, an apparent controversy[30] so they can get their point across. They do not create unity or agreement on an issue, but instead seek to polarise the community to prevent the grassroots opposition holding sway over political decision-makers.

If you want to see how Edelman works, take a look at TransCanada's alternative proposal for the stalled Keystone Pipeline[31] – the East Energy Pipeline[32]. Even before the route was announced, TransCanda employed Edelman to carry out an assessment[33] of how they could –

…drive an active public discussion about Energy East that gives Canadians reasons to affirmatively support the project in the face of organized opposition.

The way this would be enacted is outlined in another study[34] prepared a few months later by Edelman –

The most effective way to counter any external challenge is to ready a robust campaign that comprises proactive and reactive communication activities. This approach strives to neutralize risk before it is levelled, respond directly to issues or attacks as they arise, and apply pressure-intelligently-on opponents, as appropriate.

Their strategy also included a specific digital 'grassroots advocacy' proposal[35] which – from Edelman's US-based offices where they maintain a large interactive intelligence database – would organise an on-line campaign, using 35,000 recruited 'activists', to target conventional and social media with positive messages about TransCanada's pipeline.

There was even a separate proposal[36] for Francophone Québec – perhaps because Edelman's research showed[37] that French speaking Canadians were politically disposed to be "green" or "super-green".

The difficulty for Edelman and their clients was that someone leaked these documents[38] to Greenpeace Canada last November.

Which brings us back to the Task Force on Shale Gas.

Up until the Task Force was created, Edelman had been running the secretariat for the All Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on Unconventional Gas and Oil[39]. The APPGs expenses were funded, like many other APPGs, by the industry – a similar group in fact to those who now support[40] the new Task Force.

frackademics map 6
Map for Case Study 6 from Frackademics, Talk Fracking, March 2015

Trouble was, being comprised of politicians, the public paid little attention to any of the 'industry propaganda'[41] which the APPG circulated.

Then last Autumn, roughly coincident with the formation of the Task Force, Edelman dropped the APPG – handing the secretariat role to another agency with a track record of astroturfing[42] on behalf of industrial causes, Hill and Knowlton[43].

Was the APPG a failing cause? Were politicians the wrong conduit to influence the public?

After all, in 2013 someone at one of the funders of the Task Force, Centrica, had written an email to the Department for Energy and Climate (DECC) office promoting shale gas stating that[44]

Our polling shows that academics are the most trusted sources of information to the public so we are looking at ways to work with the academic community to present the scientific facts around shale.

Just few months before the dropping the APPG, Edelman employed Katie Waring[45], energy secretary Ed Davey's former special adviser[46] at DECC – perhaps indicating that a change of strategy was being planned.

The problem for the ambitions of Chris Smith is that the model of the Task Force – comprising experts doing research for the public, funded by industry and managed by PR agencies – has already been used in the USA. For example, the Center for Sustainable Shale Development[47]. It too was modelled as a 'stakeholder' group where academics, industry and the public could come together and research the impacts of shale gas – but which was shown to be a front group for the industry[48], and whose fossil fuel industry support increased when some non-industry members left[49].

Even with the panel of experts many of whom are pre-disposed to shale gas, and the industry financing, the involvement of Edelman is toxic to the future work of the Task Force.

Chris Smith has to come clean about: who thought up the concept of the Task Force; who co-ordinated the early meetings and identified the key figures who would take part; and what has been the role of Edelman in that process. If the Task Force exists "to provide a transparent, trusted, independent and impartial platform for public scrutiny", then a key part of that has to be accounting for the previous manipulative role of Edelman in controversial public issues – and whether that contaminates the Task Force's role to serve the public interest.

In the USA almost sixty years ago the father of PR, Edward Bernays, stated in his influential book, The Engineering of Consent[50]

Today it is impossible to overestimate the importance of engineering consent; it affects almost every aspect of our daily lives. When used for social purposes, it is among our most valuable contributions to the efficient functioning of modern society… The responsible leader… must apply his energies to mastering the operational know-how of consent engineering, and to out-maneuvering his opponents in the public interest.

The Task Force on Shale Gas, in its composition, the background to its formation, and those who organise its work, has the appearance of an industry front group; organised by the company who specialise in such tactics to 'engineer consent'[51]Edelman. Unless and until the process by which the Task Force was created is fully revealed, including who employed or commissioned Edelman in that role, then the Task Force cannot be considered – irrespective of its academic credentials – to be a fair and impartial platform to discuss unconventional gas and oil in Britain.


  1. Wikipedia: 'Shadow play'http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shadow_play
  2. Wikipedia: 'Edward Bernays'http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Bernays
  3. George Osborne urges ministers to fast-track fracking measures in leaked letter, Damian Carrington, Guardian On-line, Monday 26th January 2015 – http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jan/26/george-osborne-ministers-fast-track-fracking
  4. Half of Britain to be opened up to fracking, Emily Gosden and Ben Marlow, Telegraph On-line, 26th July 2014 – http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/energy/fracking/10993128/Half-of-Britain-to-be-opened-up-to-fracking.html
  5. Fracking: communities may miss out on cash payments, Emily Gosden, Telegraph On-line, 10th March 2015 – http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/energy/fracking/11462840/Fracking-communities-may-miss-out-on-cash-payments.html
  6. YouTube: 'Arrest the Cabinet', Gathering Place Films (@NinaTailor2) and Clear Blue Films (@indyrikki), 5th March 2015 – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tc1ESFg4fkA
  7. Shale gas should be at centre of next government's energy policy – Tim Yeo, Fiona Harvey, Guardian On-line, Thursday 12th March 2015 – http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/mar/12/shale-should-be-the-centrepiece-of-next-governments-energy-policy-tim-yeo
  8. The Mackay-Stone shale gas climate impacts study, case study 3 of 'Frackademics', Paul Mobbs, Talk Fracking, March 2015 – http://www.talkfracking.org/frackademics/frackademics-case-study-3/
  9. "Frackademics" – A study of the relationships between academia, the fossil fuels industry and public agencies, Paul Mobbs, Talk Fracking, March 2015 – http://www.talkfracking.org/frackademics/frackademics-report/
  10. Fracking 'as bad for climate as coal' – UK's dodgy dossier exposed, Paul Mobbs, The Ecologist, 30th May 2014 – http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/2417288/fracking_as_bad_for_climate_as_coal_uks_dodgy_dossier_exposed.html
  11. Environmental Audit Committee calls for halt to fracking, Commons Environmental Audit Committee, 26th January 2015 – http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/environmental-audit-committee/news/environmental-risks-of-fracking-report/
  12. The Frackogram 2015 (A3 PDF version), Paul Mobbs, Mobbs Environmental Investigations, March 2015 – http://www.fraw.org.uk/mei/archive/fracktured_accountability/frackogram_2015-A3.pdf
  13. The EAC's plan for a 'fracking moratorium' in Britain doesn't go far enough, Paul Mobbs, The Ecologist, 26th January 2015 – http://www.theecologist.org/blogs_and_comments/commentators/2728878/the_eacs_plan_for_a_fracking_moratorium_in_britain_doesnt_go_far_enough.html
  14. Fracking: Ineos invests £168m in shale gas exploration deal with IGas, Emily Gosden, Telegraph On-line, 10th March 2015 – http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/energy/oilandgas/11460993/Fracking-Ineos-invests-168m-in-IGas-shale-exploration-deal.html
  15. Revealed: energy giants plans to lovebomb Scotland into backing fracking, Rob Edwards, Sunday Herald, Sunday 15th March 2015 – http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/environment/revealed-energy-giants-plans-to-lovebomb-scotland-into-backing-fracking.120661235
  16. The interrelationship between the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Unconventional Gas and Oil and The Task Force on Shale Gas, case study 6 of 'Frackademics', Paul Mobbs, Talk Fracking, March 2015 – http://www.talkfracking.org/frackademics/frackademics-case-study-6/
  17. Task Force on Shale Gashttps://www.taskforceonshalegas.uk/
  18. Former Environment Agency head to lead industry-funded fracking task force, Damian Carrington, Guardian On-line, Tuesday 21st October 2014 – http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/oct/21/former-environment-agency-head-to-lead-industry-funded-fracking-task-force
  19. Task Force on Shale Gas: 'Mission'https://www.taskforceonshalegas.uk/mission
  20. Owen Paterson held urgent meeting for fracking boss, documents show, Damian Carrington, Guardian On-line, Friday 21st March 2014 – http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/mar/21/owen-paterson-urgent-meeting-fracking-cuadrilla-lord-browne
  21. Task Force on Shale Gas: 'About the Task Force'https://www.taskforceonshalegas.uk/about-the-task-force
  22. To frack or not to frack? That is the question for communities, Ernest Rutter, Guardian On-line, Thursday 15th August 2013 – http://www.theguardian.com/local-government-network/2013/aug/15/fracking-debate-local-communities-energy
  23. Task Force on Shale Gas: 'Funding'https://www.taskforceonshalegas.uk/funding
  24. Edelman UKhttp://www.edelman.co.uk/
  25. Edelman: 'Public Affairs Capabilities – Grassroots Engagement'http://www.edelman.com/practice/public-affairs/the-details/public-affairs-capabilities-grassroots-engagement/
  26. Wikipedia: 'Astroturfing'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astroturfing
  27. The Shadow Lobbying Complex, Lee Fang, The Nation, 20th February 2014 – http://www.theinvestigativefund.org/investigations/politicsandgovernment/1929/the_shadow_lobbying_complex?page=entire
  28. Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming, Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, Bloomsbury, February 2015. ISBN 9781-6081-9394-3 – http://www.merchantsofdoubt.org/
  29. Smoking And Health Proposal, Brown and Williamson, 1969 – http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/rgy93f00/pdf;jsessionid=D5D1A8EF3455C3AD8772FD88D80F3698.tobacco03
  30. Wikipedia: 'Doubt Is Their Product'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doubt_Is_Their_Product
  31. Wikipedia: 'Keystone Pipeline'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keystone_Pipeline
  32. TransCanada: 'East Energy Pipeline'http://www.energyeastpipeline.com/
  33. Grassroots Advocacy Vision Document, Edelman/TransCanada, 15th May 2014 – http://www.fraw.org.uk/files/direct_action/tc_edelman_20142.pdf
  34. East Energy Campaign Organization, Edelman/TransCanada, 5th August 2014 – http://www.fraw.org.uk/files/direct_action/tc_edelman_20141.pdf
  35. Digital Grassroots Advocacy Plan, Edelman/TransCanada, 20th May 2014 – http://www.fraw.org.uk/files/direct_action/tc_edelman_20143.pdf
  36. Strategic Plan: Quebec, Edelman/TransCanada, 20th May 2014 – http://www.fraw.org.uk/files/direct_action/tc_edelman_20144.pdf
  37. East Energy Pipeline: Research Synthesis, Edelman/TransCanada, 2014 – http://www.fraw.org.uk/files/direct_action/tc_edelman_20145.pdf
  38. Edelman hit by Greenpeace leak of oil pipeline strategy documents, Daniel Farey-Jones, PR Week, 18th November 2014 – http://www.prweek.com/article/1322270/edelman-hit-greenpeace-leak-oil-pipeline-strategy-documents
  39. APPG on Unconventional Gas and Oilhttp://www.appgunconventionaloilandgas.com/
  40. Map for Case Study 6, 'Frackademics', Paul Mobbs, Talk Fracking, March 2015 – http://www.talkfracking.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/map-6-map.png
  41. MPs lobby group denies fracking funding, EnergyLive, 23rd August 2013 – http://www.energylivenews.com/2013/08/23/mps-lobby-group-denies-fracking-funding/
  42. Wikipedia: 'Nayirah (testimony)'http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nayirah_%28testimony%29
  43. Hill and Knowlton Strategieshttp://www.hkstrategies.co.uk/
  44. Email from Centrica to DECC, 19th September 2013 – Correspondence and meetings between the Office of Unconventional Gas and Oil, UKOOG, Centrica and IGas, DECC, 15th January 2014 – https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/correspondence-and-meetings-between-the-office-of-unconventional-gas-and-oil-ukoog-centrica-and-igas
  45. Energy loss for Edelman, David Singleton, Public Affairs News, 11th May 2014 – https://www.publicaffairsnews.com/articles/news/energy-loss-edelman
  46. Katie Waring, Special Adviser, Department of Energy and Climate Change, Advisory Committee on Business, 28th February 2013 – https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/acoba-recommendation-katie-waring-special-adviser-department-of-energy-and-climate-change
  47. The Center for Sustainable Shale Developmenthttps://www.sustainableshale.org/
  48. Big Green Fracking Machine, Public Accountability Initiative, June 2013 – http://www.fraw.org.uk/files/extreme/pai_2013.pdf
  49. Anatomy of an Industry Front Group, Public Accountability Initiative, August 2014 – http://www.fraw.org.uk/files/extreme/pai_2014.pdf
  50. The Engineering of Consent, Edward L. Bernays, 1947 – http://www.fraw.org.uk/files/politics/bernays_1947.pdf
  51. Internet Archive: The Century of the Self, Adam Curtis, BBC, 2002 – https://archive.org/details/TheCenturyOfSelfThereIsAPolicemanInsideAllOurHeadsepisode3