FRAW site index
Free Range Library index

Free Range Library

Anarchism & Action

Climate Change



Direct Action & Protest




Extreme Energy

Extr. Energy Climate

Extr. Energy Economics

Extr. Energy Nature

Extr. Energy Pollution

Extr. Energy Radiation

Food & Agriculture

FOSS & Linux


Land Rights

'Limits to Growth'




Peak Oil

Planning System







UK Government

UK Parliament



50 most recently added files index

Free Range Library indexes last updated 15:41, 28/06/2018

This form allows you to search the resource IDs and resource titles of the files in the Free Range Library. If a full match to a key cannot be found, a list of partial matches is returned.

library logo

The Free Range Virtual Library:

The energy and greenhouse-gas implications of internet video streaming in the United States

Environmental Research Letters, vol.9 no.054007, 28/05/2014

Free Range Library News & Events

10/04/18: Library database engine updated.

28/08/17: Library database engine updated (FRAW Library should be listed on searches more easily now).

10/08/17: Further changes to the website architecture completed to allowed continued expansion of the library.

22/12/16: 14 papers have been added to the Extreme Energy, Climate Change and UK Government sections.

22/11/16: 60 papers have been added to the Extreme Energy section.

back to previous page

Resource information:
Resource IDshehabi2014
Resource titleThe energy and greenhouse-gas implications of internet video streaming in the United States
Author(s)Arman Shehabi, Ben Walker, Eric Masanet
Publication/ sourceEnvironmental Research Letters, vol.9 no.054007
Date published28/05/2014
Summary text/ abstractThe rapid growth of streaming video entertainment has recently received attention as a possibly less energy intensive alternative to the manufacturing and transportation of digital video discs (DVDs). This study utilizes a life-cycle assessment approach to estimate the primary energy use and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with video viewing through both traditional DVD methods and online video streaming. Base-case estimates for 2011 video viewing energy and CO2(e) emission intensities indicate video streaming can be more efficient than DVDs, depending on DVD viewing method. Video streaming benefits from relatively more efficient end-user devices than DVD viewing, though much of that savings is lost when accounting for the additional energy from network data transmission. Video streaming appears distinctly favorable when compared against any DVD viewing that includes consumer driving, which significantly increases the energy and CO2(e) emissions per viewing hour. Total US 2011 video viewing required about 192 PJ of primary energy and emitted about 10.5 billion kg of CO2(e). Shifting all 2011 DVD viewing to video streaming reduces the total primary energy use to about 162 PJ and the CO2(e) emissions to about 8.6 billion kg, representing a savings equivalent to the primary energy used to meet the electricity demand of nearly 200 000 US households each year. Sensitivity analysis indicates that results are most influenced by the end-user DVD player power demand, data transmission energy, and consumer travel for store DVDs. Data center energy use – both operational and embodied within the IT equipment – account for <1% of the total video streaming energy use. Results from this study indicate that designers and policy makers should focus on the efficiency of end-user devices and network transmission energy to curb future increases in energy use from the proliferation of video streaming.
Library categoriesClimate Change, Energy, Hacktivism, Technology
Added to Free Range Library09/06/2014
Download file(s):

file iconThe energy and greenhouse-gas implications of internet video streaming in the United States [1.3 megabytes]
This file is not located within the Free Range Activism Website

back to previous page

[an error occurred while processing this directive]