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USAF Croughton & Networked Warfare – The Joint Intelligence Analysis Complex:

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The NATO Joint Intelligence Analysis Complex:

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USAF Croughton, Networked Warfare, and the Intelligence-Fusion Complex
How digital networks, data, and artificial intelligence are blurring the boundaries between military, political and civil conflict


The report on the JIAC is a compendium of over 30 years of research and study of not only USAF Croughton, but also the intelligence and communications systems of the "military-industrial-entertainment" complex. Much of the content of the report though is based on information that has arisen only in the last few years, as military and intelligence services have totally reviewed their operations to exploit digital data and communications.

This page contains an extensive list of links – most of which are not referred to in the text of the report itself (which should, in the first instance, be your first port of call to understand the issues covered).

There is no simple way to convey all of that information. In this it is hoped that you might make a start down that road to a deeper understanding of 'networked' warfare, and the wider implications of 'intelligence fusion'. The index is divided into four sections:

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Websites

To begin, a list of up-to-date information sources related to networked warfare and intelligence fusion:

Croughtonwatch
http://www.fraw.org.uk/croughtonwatch/
Drone Wars UK
https://dronewars.net/
Global Network Against Weapons & Nuclear Power in Space
http://www.space4peace.org/
The Peace Report
thepeacereport.com
Campaign to Stop killer Robots
https://www.stopkillerrobots.org/
The Intercept
https://theintercept.com/
The Bureau of Investigative Journalism – Drone Warfare
https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/projects/drone-war
Drone Campaign Network
https://dronecampaignnetwork.wordpress.com/
ACLU – Fusion Centers Blog
https://www.aclu.org/issues/national-security/privacy-and-surveillance?redirect=blog/tag/fusion-centers
Privacy International
https://privacyinternational.org/
Reprieve – Drones
https://reprieve.org.uk/topic/drones/
War Resisters International
https://www.wri-irg.org/en
Electronic Frontier Foundation
https://www.eff.org/work

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Videos

Sit back and watch these basic introductions to what USAF Croughton, and similar sites, are involved with – which will give you a quick mental map to understand the more complex issues:

☮ Croughtonwatch: USAF Croughton – Keep Space for Peace 2018, June 2018
USAF Croughton is about to undergo one of the biggest redevelopments since it was constructed by the USAF almost 70 years ago. The new "Joint Intelligence Analysis Complex" will put the site at the heart of a web of military and intelligence networks stretching from the USA to Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. However, given the nature of the operations this will involve, the question arises as to whether the development is lawful under International Law.
☮ ramblinactivist: 10/17: 'Keep Space for Peace', part 2 – USAF Croughton, December 2017
This video investigates not just USAF Croughton ('RAF' assumes a level of control that does not, in reality, exist), but also the evolution of the idea of "network-centric warfare" as it has developed at this site. USAF Croughton is about to undergo a large upgrade to extend its mission. The new 'Joint Intelligence Analysis Centre' (JIAC) will create an intelligence hub in Europe that will co-ordinate NATO (but predominately US) military and intelligence services across the new 'electronic battle space'.
☮ ramblinactivist: 9/17: 'Keep Space for Peace', part 1 – NSA Menwith Hill, December 2017
A trip to NSA Menwith Hill, for the 'Keep Space for Peace' week gathering. It's possible to say many things about this site, and give a technical analysis of its capabilities, but what concerns me is something relatively simple. Who is accountable for the acts carried out within the perimeter fence?
☮ TED: Military robots and the future of war, 2009
In this powerful talk, P.W. Singer shows how the widespread use of robots in war is changing the realities of combat. He shows us scenarios straight out of science fiction -- that now may not be so fictitious.
☮ DIA: Defense Intelligence Agency - We're DIA, 2010
A promotional video from the US Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA).
☮ NATO: NATO's new Unmanned Air Vehicles , 2012
NATO is preparing to acquire 5 unmanned air vehicles or UAVs. With the support of resources on the ground they will allow the Alliance to develop its own ground defence capability.
☮ Democracy Now!: Jeremy Scahill on U.S. Kill Program’s Secrets & the Whistleblower Who Leaked Them, October 2016
One of the most secretive military campaigns in U.S. history is under the microscope like never before. In a major exposé based on leaked government documents, The Intercept has published the most in-depth look at the U.S. drone assassination program to date. “The Drone Papers” exposes the inner workings of the U.S. military’s assassination program in Afghanistan, Yemen and Somalia, revealing a number of flaws and far more casualties than the intended targets.
☮ Democracy Now!: Jeremy Scahill & Glenn Greenwald Reveal NSA Role in Assassinations Overseas, 2014
In the first exposé for their new venture, First Look Media’s digital journal The Intercept, investigative journalists Jeremy Scahill and Glenn Greenwald reveal the National Security Agency is using complex analysis of electronic surveillance, rather than human intelligence, as the primary method to locate targets for lethal drone strikes. The NSA identifies targets based on controversial metadata analysis and cellphone tracking technologies, an unreliable tactic that has resulted in the deaths of innocent and unidentified people. The United States has reportedly carried out drone strikes without knowing whether the individual in possession of a tracked cellphone or SIM card is in fact the intended target of the strike.
☮ Brookings Institute: A New Model for Defense Intelligence, {DATE}
On November 20, the Intelligence Project at Brookings and the National Intelligence University co-hosted a discussion with Lieutenant General Michael T. Flynn, director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), to examine this uncertain future, DIA's role in this complex security environment and a new model for defense intelligence that ensures preparedness to address these challenges and the crises of tomorrow.

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Short reads

A list of general, short reports on information warfare and intelligence fusion:

☮ Croughtonwatch: USAF Croughton, Networked Warfare, and the Intelligence-Fusion Complex, June 2018
How digital networks, data, and artificial intelligence are blurring the boundaries between military, political and civil conflict. This short report on NATO’s Joint Intelligence Analysis Centre was written by researcher and consultant, Paul Mobbs. The report considers not only the details of the recently permitted JIAC development, but also the wider technological and policy issues surrounding 'information' and 'hybrid' warfare – and the critical role of data collection and analysis in that process.
☮ Croughtonwatch: Media coverage and reports
The Croughtonwatch 'media reports' archive lists a variety of media coverage and analysis of Croughton and related cyberwarfare/surveillance issues. The 'videos' section extends this looking at broadcast media and other videos related to Croughton.
☮ New Statesman/Society: Somebody's listening... and they don't give a damn about privacy or commercial confidence, 12th August 1988
Project 415 is a top secret new global surveillance system. It can tap into a billion calls a year in the UK alone. Inside, Duncan Campbell on how spying entered the 21st Century.
☮ New Statesman: Death by data: how Kafka’s The Trial prefigured the nightmare of the modern surveillance state, January 2014
We live in a world of covert court decisions and secret bureaucratic procedures and where privacy is being abolished – all familiar from Kafka’s best-known novel, The Trial.
☮ Quaker Peace & Social Witness: United States military and intelligence bases in Britain – a briefing, June 2004
As part of this global network, US forces are accommodated on 35 sites in Britain. Collectively, these occupy about 10 square miles. Of these sites, six are one square mile or larger and four host more than 1000 US personnel each. All US bases in Britain are advertised as Royal Air Force facilities. In addition, two large US bases on British island territories provide the US with a presence in strategically significant locations – the South Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean.
☮ Open Society Justice Initiative: Death by Drone: Civilian Harm Caused by U.S. Targeted Killings in Yemen, 2015
The United States has been conducting targeted killings in Yemen at least since 2002. These killings have been cloaked in secrecy. Neither the U.S. nor the Yemeni government systematically discloses information on civilian deaths and injuries caused by U.S. airstrikes. In the face of pervasive government secrecy, this report provides detailed and thorough information on civilian harm caused by nine such strikes in Yemen, all apparently conducted by U.S. drones.
☮ Yorkshire CND: Lifting the Lid on Menwith Hill, 2012
Anyone travelling along the A59 to Skipton cannot fail to notice the collection of large white spheres spread over many acres of otherwise green fields just outside Harrogate. Some may know that these ‘golfballs’, as they are often called, contain satellite receiving dishes, but few will know much more than that. In fact, it’s extremely difficult to find out very much more because this place – RAF Menwith Hill – is the largest secret intelligence gathering system outside of the US and it is run, not by the RAF (as its name would suggest) but by the National Security Agency of America.
☮ Human Rights Watch/ACLU: With Liberty to Monitor All: How Large-Scale US Surveillance is Harming Journalism, Law, and American Democracy, July 2014
With Liberty to Monitor All, a joint report by Human Rights Watch and the ACLU, documents the insidious effects of large-scale US surveillance on the practice of journalism and law in the United States, and the threat it poses to basic freedoms and democratic values. The report is based on extensive interviews with journalists, lawyers, and senior US government officials. The US has an obligation to protect national security, and may engage in surveillance to the extent it is lawful, necessary, and proportionate to a legitimate state interest. But many existing surveillance programs are indiscriminate or overbroad, and threaten freedom of expression, the right to counsel, and the public's ability to hold its government to account.
☮ Military Aerospace: Electronic warfare to be part of all military operations, August 2014
New threats and technologies are giving rise to terms like spectrum warfare that seek to blend electronic warfare, cyber warfare, and other technological approaches to controlling the RF spectrum.
☮ CIA: The Origin and Evolution of the Joint Analysis Center at RAF Molesworth, March 2018
The story of how critically important US intelligence centers in Europe came to operate in a rural setting far from any major headquarters illustrates the many ways in which the fortunes of the intelligence profession can be affected by technology, fiscal conditions, expediency, and radical changes in the global security environment.
☮ International Committee of the Red Cross: New technologies and warfare, Spring 2012
The dazzling scientific and technical progress of recent decades has given rise to unprecedented means and methods of warfare. Some of these new technologies (such as observation and combat drones) are already in use, while others (nanotechnologies, combat robots, and laser weapons) are still in the experimental and developmental stages. As well as the need for military capabilities on land, sea, and airspace, great armies are recognizing the need to have military capabilities in cyberspace.
☮ Human Rights Watch/International Human Rights Clinic: Advancing The Debate on Killer Robots: 12 Key Arguments for a Preemptive Ban on Fully Autonomous Weapons, May 2014
The development of fully autonomous weapons, also known as 'killer robots', and the proposal to ban them preemptively have sparked impassioned debate at the international and national levels. Experts – including lawyers, ethicists, military specialists, human rights advocates, and scientists – have argued about the legality and desirability of the weapons in official diplomatic meetings, at conferences around the world, in academic journals, and on the Internet.
☮ Human Rights Watch/International Human Rights Clinic: Losing Humanity: The Case against Killer Robots, November 2012
With the rapid development and proliferation of robotic weapons, machines are starting to take the place of humans on the battlefield. Some military and robotics experts have predicted that "killer robots" – fully autonomous weapons that could select and engage targets without human intervention – could be developed within 20 to 30 years. At present, military officials generally say that humans will retain some level of supervision over decisions to use lethal force, but their statements often leave open the possibility that robots could one day have the ability to make such choices on their own power.
☮ JFQ: Defense Intelligence Analysis in the Age of Big Data, Winter 2015
Over the past decade, the U.S. and Australian intelligence communities have evolved rapidly to perform new missions. They have developed new capabilities and adapted their business processes, especially in support of joint and complex military operations. But in the coming decade, their greatest challenge will be to develop new capabilities to manage and exploit big data. We use the term big data to mean the exponentially increasing amount of digital information being created by new information technologies (IT).
☮ Article 36: Killer Robots: UK Government Policy on Fully Autonomous Weapons, April 2013
Whilst considering that unmanned and automated systems will take on a growing role in its military forces, the UK Government has committed in parliament that the operation of weapon systems will always remain under human control. This commitment provides a positive basis for discussing the effective control of autonomous weapons for the future. However, this commitment is brought into question by a consideration of the UK Ministry of Defence's (MoD) Joint Doctrine Note on 'The UK Approach to Unmanned Systems.' As a result, current UK doctrine is confused and there are a number of areas where policy needs further elaboration if it is not to be so ambiguous as to be meaningless.

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Hard study

A list of more advanced documentation that describes the operations of different military and intelligence organisations:

☮ Croughtonwatch: JIAC Development Reports
This page contains reports and documentation which directly relate to the design and construction of the Joint Intelligence Analysis Complex (JIAC). These reports described the physical development of the complex, as well as the organisational and budgetary background to the project.
☮ Free Range Virtual Library: Croughtonwatch Resources
'Croughtonwatch' is a monitoring campaign surrounding the operation of USAF Croughton and Barford St. John, the US Government's military and intelligence communications centre on the border of Northamptonshire and Oxfordshire. The files in this section relate to the intelligence, surveillance and cyberwarfare aspects of Croughton's operations.
☮ Free Range Virtual Library: Cyberwarfare, Drones & Intelligence
Technology is not only changing the nature of conflict, but also the policy and political context which surrounds how conflict is planned and executed. The "Cyberwarfare, Drones & Intelligence" on-line library area is a collections of policy and technical documents examining the growing significance of cyber- and 'network centric' warfare to military planning, and to the political debate ove both foreign and domestic security policy.
☮ US European Command: Posture Statement 2018, March 2018
…Europe provides essential strategic access in support of U.S. global operations to protect the homeland and the ability to pursue potential threats to their source. As our most significant trading partner, Europe is vital to promoting American prosperity. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) enables us to preserve peace through strength as alliance unity fundamentally deters the aggression of potential adversaries. With shared history and values, Europe is also a critical partner in advancing American influence throughout the world.
☮ US Department of Defense: The US DoD Cyber Strategy, April 2015
The United States is committed to an open, secure, interoperable, and reliable Internet that enables prosperity, public safety, and the free flow of commerce and ideas. These qualities of the Internet reflect core American values – of freedom of expression and privacy, creativity, opportunity, and innovation. And these qualities have allowed the Internet to provide social and economic value to billions of people. We are vulnerable in this wired world. Today our reliance on the confidentiality, availability, and integrity of data stands in stark contrast to the inadequacy of our cybersecurity. State and non-state actors conduct cyber operations to achieve a variety of political, economic, or military objectives.
☮ US Cyber Command: Beyond the Build – The Commander’s Vision and Guidance for US Cyber Command, June 2015
As cyberspace has grown and become more pervasive, military art has changed. No one today can exert or maintain national power without acute sensitivity to the digital networks that underpin the world’s communications, prosperity, and security. Although the US Department of Defense and Intelligence Community had an early advantage in cyber capabilities, today much of the technical expertise necessary here resides outside government and often outside our nation. The United States is working hard to maintain its edge over potential adversaries in cyberspace—but we must acknowledge our nation is facing peer competitors in this domain.
☮ US Cyber Command: Achieve and Maintain Cyberspace Superiority, February 2018
Military superiority in the air, land, sea, and space domains is critical to our ability to defend our interests and protect our values. Achieving superiority in the physical domains in no small part depends on superiority in cyberspace. Yet we risk ceding cyberspace superiority.
☮ JFQ: Activity-Based Intelligence – Revolutionizing Military Intelligence Analysis, Summer 2015
Information-age technology is advancing at a stunning pace, yielding increasingly complex information architectures, data accessibility, and knowledge management—all of which have created the conditions for a leap in intelligence processes,” stated Lieutenant General Robert Otto, the Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR). 1 The vast amount of information that the Intelligence Community (IC) collects demands a transformation in the way the Department of Defense (DOD) intelligence enterprise processes, organizes, and presents data. The enterprise must embrace the opportunities inherent to big data while also driving toward a unified strategy with the IC.
☮ United States Air Force: Air Force Cyber Command Strategic Vision, February 2008
Warfighters rely upon cyberspace to command and control forces in the 21st century. Revolutionary technology has presented cyber capabilities, which can provide decisive effects traditionally achieved only through kinetic means. Recognizing the domain’s importance, Secretary of the Air Force Michael Wynne announced Air Force Cyberspace Command in September 2007 to bring together the myriad existing cyber capabilities under a single commander. This new command will provide combat-ready forces equipped to conduct sustained operations in and through the electromagnetic spectrum, fully integrated with global air and space operations.
☮ Defense Intelligence Agency: Strategic Vision 2012-2017, January 2012
IT plays a vital role in enabling the defense intelligence mission. An incredible challenge facing our nation is securing information from internal and external threats while enabling beneficial collaboration within our internal national security infrastructure. Specifically, DIA Director Lieutenant General Ronald L. Burgess, Jr. stated that DIA must stay ahead of the advanced pace of available information technology capabilities to timely address the challenges that face the defense intelligence mission. The DIA Strategy cites that 'DIA must rapidly implement new and innovative approaches in order to outpace the application of low technology advantages by our nation’s adversaries.'
☮ Defense Information Systems Agency: Strategic Plan 2015-2020, June 2015
We are at an operational crossroads. We continue to operate in a contested battlespace, where the barrier to entry is low and oftentimes unchallenged. We must recognize that mission success is defined by our ability to pre-emptively disrupt, degrade, or deny our adversaries, both internal and external, unimpeded access to the information and capabilities of the Department of Defense Information Network (DODIN). We must sustain our operations and defenses before, during, and after an attack by reducing the attack surface, continually improving defensive cyberspace operations, and effectively commanding and controlling the DODIN. We are the premier Information Technology Combat Support Agency that provides and assures command, control, communications, computing, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) to the warfighter. We deliver enterprise services and data at the user point of need. We now serve as the joint operational arm of defensive cyberspace operations, for the Department of Defense.
☮ Center for a New American Security: 20YY: Preparing for War in the Robotic Age, January 2014
Over the past several decades, the United States has been an aggressive first mover in a war-fighting regime centered on guided munitions and integrated battle networks. For a variety of reasons – the geopolitics of rising powers, the global diffusion of technology and counter-reactions by its adversaries chief among them – the preeminence enjoyed by the United States in this regime is starting to erode.
☮ US National Counterterrorism Centre: Watchlisting Guidance, March 2013
The current TERRORIST watchlisting process supports the U.S. Govemment's efforts to combat TERRORISM by: (1) consolidating the U.S. Govemment's Terrorist Watchlist in the TSDB; (2) helping SCREENERS and intelligence agencies accurately identify individuals on the Terrorist Watchlist; (3) providing SCREENERS with information to help them respond appropriately during ENCOUNTERS with KNOWN or SUSPECTED TERRORISTS; and, (4) subsequently collecting information about the KNOWN or SUSPECTED TERRORIST for use in assessing threats and conducting investigations.
☮ Command and Control Research Program: Power to the Edge: Command and Control in the Information Age, June 2003
Power to the Edge is the latest book in the Information Age Transformation Series, and in a sense it completes the articulation of a vision of DoD Transformation and an approach to achieving it.
☮ Command and Control Research Program: Understanding Information Age Warfare, August 2001
The age we live in is full of contradictions. It is a time unlike any other, a time when the pace of change demands that we change while we are still at the top of our game in order to survive the next wave. It is a time when our analysis methods are becoming less and less able to shed light on the choices we face. It is a time when the tried and true approaches to military command and control, organization, and doctrine need to be re-examined.
☮ US Department of Defense: The Implementation of Network-Centric Warfare, 2005
Warfare is about human behavior in a context of organized violence directed toward political ends. So, network-centric warfare (NCW) is about human behavior within a networked environment. 'The network' is a noun, the information technology, and can only be the enabler. 'To network' is the verb, the human behavior, the action, and the main focus. So, implementation of NCW must look beyond the acquisition of the technical enablers to individual and organizational behavior, e.g., organizational structure, processes, tactics, and the way choices are made.
☮ United States Air Force: RPA Vector: Vision and Enabling Concepts 2013-2038, 2014
The U.S. Air Force (USAF) 'Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Vector – Vision and Enabling Concepts: 2013-2038' balances the effects envisioned in the USAF 'Unmanned Aircraft Systems Flight Plan 2009-2047' with the reality of constrained resources and ambitious national strategy for a complex world. More importantly, as a visionary document, the RPA Vector opens the aperture beyond current austere fiscal realities to explore art of the possible technologies in the 2013–2038 timeframe.
☮ US Department of Defense: Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap, December 2013
Unmanned systems continue to deliver new and enhanced battlefield capabilities to the warfighter. While the demand for unmanned systems continues unabated today, a number of factors will influence unmanned program development in the future. Three primary forces are driving the Department of Defense's (DoD) approach in planning for and developing unmanned systems.
☮ United States Air Force: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Flight Plan 2009-2047, 2009
This Flight Plan is an actionable plan to achieve the USAF vision for the future of UAS. The USAF will implement the actions described within to evolve UAS capabilities. Given the dynamic nature of emerging technologies, this Flight Plan is a living document crafted to be updated as benchmarks are achieved and emerging technologies proven. Specifically, this plan outlines initiatives from 2009 to 2047 in DOTMLPF-P format that balance the early USAF unmanned lessons learned with current and emerging unmanned technology advancements.
☮ Ministry of Defence: Strategic Trends Programme: Global Strategic Trends – Out to 2045, June 2014
Global Strategic Trends (GST) describes a strategic context for those in the Ministry of Defence (MOD) and wider Government who are involved in developing long-term plans, policies and capabilities. Without a strategic context there is a risk that planners, policy-makers and capability developers may assume a future that adheres to preconceived thoughts and assumptions. As well as providing a strategic context, this fifth edition of GST (GST5) identifies long-term threats and opportunities, out to 2045.
☮ US Department of Defense: Joint Vision 2020, May 2000
In support of the objectives of our National Security Strategy, it is routinely employed to shape the international security environment and stands ready to respond across the full range of potential military operations. But the focus of this document is the third element of our strategic approach – the need to prepare now for an uncertain future. Joint Vision 2020 builds upon and extends the conceptual template established by Joint Vision 2010 to guide the continuing transformation of America's Armed Forces. The primary purpose of those forces has been and will be to fight and win the Nation's wars. The overall goal of the transformation described in this document is the creation of a force that is dominant across the full spectrum of military operations – persuasive in peace, decisive in war, preeminent in any form of conflict.
☮ US Army: Field Manual no.3-38: Cyber Electromagnetic Activities, February 2014
FM 3-38, Cyber Electromagnetic Activities, provides overarching doctrinal guidance and direction for conducting cyber electromagnetic activities (CEMA). This manual describes the importance of cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) to Army forces and provides the tactics and procedures commanders and staffs use in planning, integrating, and synchronizing CEMA. This manual provides the information necessary for Army forces to conduct CEMA that enable them to shape their operational environment and conduct unified land operations.

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